In general, routing protocols can be divided into three groups depending on different network protocol specifications. First, depending on the network structure that the class consists of three routing types are flat-based routing, hierarchical-based routing, and location-based routing.
- All nodes are typically assigned equal roles of functionality points to flat routing,
- Nodes will play different roles in the network points to hierarchical routing,
- Sensor nodes’ positions are exploited to route data in the network points to location-based routing.
Second, depending on how the source finds a route to the destination that the class consists of three routing protocol types is proactive, reactive and hybrid protocols.
- In proactive protocols, all routes are computed before they are needed,
- In reactive protocols, routes are computed on demand,
- Hybrid protocols use a combination of these two ideas.
Finally, depending on protocol operation that the class consists of five routing techniques.
- Multi path-based uses multiple routes simultaneously.
- Query-based that the destination node sends a query data from a node to through the network and target node sends the data back to the sender node that initiated the query.
- Negotiation-based eliminates redundant data transmissions through negotiation in other terms negotiates data transfers before they occurs.
- QoS-based that the network should to balance between energy consumption and data quality. In details, the network has to satisfy certain QoS metrics such as delay, energy, and bandwidth.
- Coherent-based routing performs only minimum amount of in-network processing.
Reference: K.Akkaya, M.Younis, ”A Survey of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Elsevier Ad Hoc Network Journal, Vol. 3/3 pp. 325- 349, 2005.